Verilog-AMS & Multi-Level Simulation

Aldec and Tanner EDA Bridge Digital and Analog Design Flows

Dmitry Melnik, Product Manager Software Division
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It occurred to me that it has been a few months since we shared an update on HiPer Simulation A/MS. Following DAC 2013 and Daniel Payne’s posts at SemiWiki (post 1, post 2), we at Aldec and Tanner EDA have received many inquiries from the field, conducted a number of evaluations, and deployed our analog/mixed-signal (AMS) design flow with our first mutual customers. In this article, I’ll share more the mixed-signal simulation methodology and highlight some of Verilog-AMS use cases that we have seen in the field.

 

Digital & Analog HDLs

The Verilog and VHDL languages were designed to handle discrete signals, where the number of possible signal values is limited (e.g. 1, 0, X, Z). Whereas Verilog-A was designed to handle continuous-time (analog) signals, that can take any value from a continuous range at any point.

Verilog-AMS and VHDL-AMS are the two HDLs currently available for describing mixed-signal hardware. As the “AMS” part suggests, they enable modeling of systems that process both digital and continuous-time. As such, Verilog-AMS combines two languages (Verilog and Verilog-A) and also provides an extension to allow description of mixed-signal components:

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

An example of a mixed-signal system is presented in the following diagram:

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

Another way to think about Verilog-AMS is as an extension of SPICE, raising the level of abstraction available to analog and mixed-signal designers:

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

 

Mixed-Signal Design Approach

Digital and analog designers are indeed still living in separate worlds, using different methodologies and tools. Even though Verilog-AMS is available, most of the mixed-signal designs use the bottom-up approach:

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

 

Why would they do that while Verilog-AMS is available?

 

Bottom-up approach:

Opponents of the bottom-up design approach start designing the individual blocks, implement them at a transistor level, verify them individually, and then combine the blocks to form the system – entirely represented at the transistor level.

One of the biggest arguments for the bottom-up design is that analog designers don’t have access to automated tools such as the place & route technology that made the top-down approach a de-facto standard for digital. Another is that custom design may be the only way to achieve performance; a highly custom circuit is typically required to fit the requirements of a particular application.

Perhaps the biggest challenge of the bottom-up design approach is that system level is reached late at the design cycle, when it’s too late for any major architectural changes even if they could improve performance dramatically.

 

Top-down approach:

Opponents of the top-down approach are trying to tackle the key challenge of the bottom-up approach, putting themselves in charge of the architectural exploration. In terms of the top-down paradigm, the design starts with a block-level definition of the system and simulation in a system simulator such as MathWorks Simulink or Agilent SystemVue; the individual blocks are then designed at the transistor level based on the requirements derived from the system-level simulation; and finally the entire chip is assembled from blocks and verified.

While top-down design approach has a number of obvious benefits at the architectural level, it still comes down to designing analog parts of the mixed-signal system manually for the sake of performance and creativity. However we see more and more customers employing the top-down approach due to a benefit which might be easy to overlook – the ability to incorporate mixed-level simulation easily.

 

Mixed-Level Simulation

Neither the bottom-up nor top-down approach addresses the simulation-based verification challenge at the system level (it takes too much time to simulate a large system defined at the transistor level). To overcome this challenge, the mixed-level simulation is use.

The idea is relatively simple and involves replacing a top-level block with its transistor-level implementation, and then co-simulating the two levels of abstraction to verify the block in the context of the system (such as a testbench).

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

The mixed-level simulation is not limited to co-simulation at just two levels of abstraction. The system simulators (Simulink & SystemVue) can auto-generate Verilog-HDL to be shared with the digital and mixed-signal design teams for further replacement with the Verilog-AMS models and/or SPICE netlists. So, you might end up co-simulating top-level (system) description with behavioral Verilog-AMS and with transistor-level (SPICE) model at the same time.

 

Verilog-AMS Simulators

Since in a mixed-signal system, signals from both the discrete (digital) and the continuous domain (analog) are used, simulator vendors need to include two kernels, event-driven (logic simulator) and continuous (circuit simulator). The following block level diagram presents Aldec/Tanner EDA integration in terms of HiPer Simulation A/MS tool suite:

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

Some vendors in this market claim to have a “single-kernel” AMS simulator, but chances are that they still have good-old co-simulation between the two kernels under the hood. This is exactly how HiPer’s mixed-signal environment works, enabling users to deal with the standard Verilog-AMS input language, and then automatically separating SPICE and Verilog, inserting interface components, running simulation, and displaying results.

 

Let’s Run a Sample Design

Tanner EDA hosts both the tools, and users can download the package from Tanner’s website at http://www.tannereda.com/support.

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

The package includes Tanner Edition (TE) of Riviera-PRO, a limited yet still capable mixed-language simulator. The installation process is straightforward with the only possible caveat is that users who elected for 64-bit version of Tanner Tools must go with 64-bit version of Aldec Riviera-PRO as well. Once the tools are installed and licenses are set up, the user must set the TANNER_ALDEC_DIR environment variable pointing to Riviera-PRO installation and the HiPer Simulation A/MS platform is ready to go.

Loading the ADC8 example in Tanner’s S-Edit provides a quick way to test-drive the mixed-signal simulation. This is how the ADC8 schematics look like:

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

Selecting the green “Run Simulation” arrow will automatically write out the netlist, including SPICE and Verilog components, and invoke T-Spice.

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

T-Spice splits the design into SPICE, Verilog-D and Verilog-A (Verilog-AMS modules are split), and invokes Aldec’s Riviera-PRO TE:

 verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

The simulation runs until completion, and results are shown in W-Edit:

verilog-ams, verilog ams, verilog ams simulator

Summary

Creating and verifying A/MS integrated circuits is a challenge. SPICE-based simulation provides the accuracy needed for the analog design, but is too slow to handle the system level verification. Event-driven digital simulation provides the necessary speed to simulate the digital portions, but fails when dealing with the analog parts. Verilog-AMS is the language that brings the digital and analog worlds together, enabling efficient top-down design approach but introducing co-simulation challenges.

The integrated Aldec/Tanner solution helps to eliminate co-simulation complexities by automatically recognizing the analog and digital portions of a design and enabling designers to easily verify interfaces between analog and digital blocks. HiPer Simulation A/MS provides accurate, high-performance co-simulation that allows designers to verify the most complex A/MS designs with ease and confidence, and within budget.

A free no-obligation 30-day evaluation license is available at http://www.tannereda.com/short-form.

Dmitry Melnik is a product manager at Aldec responsible for ALINT™ and Riviera-PRO™ product lines. He has over 8 years of digital design and verification experience, including previous roles in corporate and field applications, technical marketing, and software development with R&D divisions of Aldec in Europe. Dmitry holds an M.S. in Computer Systems from Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics, Ukraine.

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